When you georeference your raster dataset, you define its location using dataset that you want to align with your projected data in ArcMap. The general steps for georeferencing a raster dataset are: Add the raster dataset that aligns with the projected data. – Add control points that link known raster. This tutorial will explain how to georeference a raster image in ArcGIS so it can then be used as an overlay or for digitizing purposes. In this example, a historic.

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Click the Georeferencing drop-down menu and click Fit To Display. If you have dual monitors, you can drag the Image Viewer window to the second monitor. Go Back To Previous Extent. From the Georeferencing toolbar, click the Layer drop-down arrow and choose the raster layer you want to georeference. First the transformation is used to find a point in the forward direction.

Georeferencing toolbar tools

You can examine the residual error for each link and the root mean square RMS error. The Zoom To Selected Link tool can zoom in on the highlighted link. Similarity requires a minimum of three control points.

Typically, the adjust and spline transformations georeferrnce an RMS of nearly zero; however, this does beoreference mean that the image will be perfectly georeferenced. The Georeferencing Options window allows you to specify default behaviors while you are georeferencing. You can manually rotate the source layer, or you can type a degrees value in the measurement text box. Aligning the raster with control points Generally you will georeference your raster data using existing spatial data target datasuch as georeferenced rasters or a vector feature class that resides in the desired map coordinate system.

The coordinate system assigned to the raster is the same as the coordinate system defined on the data frame the raster is part of. Below is the equation to transform a raster dataset using the affine first order polynomial transformation. To see more transformations, you may need to choose more links.


Typically, having at least one link near each corner of the raster dataset and a few throughout the interior produces the best results. The higher the transformation order, the more complex the distortion that can be corrected.

Overview of georeferencing—ArcGIS Pro | ArcGIS Desktop

This creates a new file with the same name as the raster dataset, but with an. This window displays the raster dataset you are trying to georeference in its own window. The blue lines between control points represent the residual or, error. See Georeferencing a raster automatically for steps goereference perform autoregistration. You can also add your links in the Magnification window or the Viewer window.

ArcGIS Pro

Thus, squares and rectangles on the raster dataset are commonly changed into parallelograms of arbitrary scaling and angle orientation. Procedure The general steps for georeferencing a raster dataset are: Go forward through the sequence of extents that you have been viewing in the Image Viewer window when linked to the main data view. If you navigate the data view, the Image Viewer will show the same extent.

Opens the Symbol Selector window to allow you to choose any line symbol as your residual line. Press the F5 keyboard shortcut.

However, adding more links will not necessarily yield georeferdnce better registration. If you only have one monitor available, you can georefeence the Reposition button to divide your screen evenly for each window. For a raster dataset that is file based, such as a TIFF, the transformation will generally be stored in an external XML file that has an.

Zoom in by clicking once or dragging a box in the Image Viewer window. It is optimized for global accuracy but does not guarantee local accuracy. The navigational buttons will all be disabled on the Image Viewer window. Disable vector snapping while pressed down. Type in the rotation angle, x,y shift, or rescale factor. Cancel link while creating a link. To minimize errors, you should georeference to data that is at the highest resolution and largest scale for your needs.


Higher-order transformations require more links and, thus, will involve progressively more processing time.

Get notified about latest updates to this technical article? Each link can be turned on or off to evaluate what the result would be. Add as many control as needed until the data is aligned correctly. The toolbar has a collection of drop-down items and interactive tools.

Opens a viewer gepreference that only displays the raster that you will be georeferencing. Thank you for your feedback. The goal of the least-squares fitting algorithm is to derive a general formula that can be applied to all points, usually at the expense of slight movement of the to positions of the control points.

A minimum of four links are required to perform a projective transformation.

This is a measure of how close your accuracy is, georefrrence in pixels. The process involves identifying a series of ground control points—known x,y coordinates—that link locations on the raster dataset with locations in the spatially referenced data.

This second point is then compared to your from-point that the link tool created. When georeferencing, you should look for well-defined objects within your images, such as road intersections or land features. Corrects for common scanning distortions. Repeat these steps using points from around your map. Looking for a label? The residual shows you the error in the same units as the data frame spatial reference.