Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review the . Select a company with which you are familiar, preferably one where you have been employed,

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review the . Select a company with which you are familiar, preferably one where you have been employed, and consider a process within that company that could be improved. This could be a business process, a manufacturing process, a distribution process, or a service process that you have observed or been involved with during your career. Using your course textbook and University of Arizona Global Campus Library research, prepare a recommended process improvement proposal that incorporates tools and methods learned in this course. Your paper should The Process Improvement paper Carefully review the for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

Dalmage (2013) writes, “Parents and teachers should be aware of the unique forms of discrimination faced by multiracial children and the White supremacist system in

Dalmage (2013) writes, “Parents and teachers  should be aware of the unique forms of discrimination faced by  multiracial children and the White supremacist system in which  discrimination flourishes” (p. 101). As social workers, we should be  aware of our own understanding of what it means to be multiracial in  society. This awareness includes a review of our own potential biases  that might exist. We need to challenge our own personal ideas about how  we categorize individuals and those assumptions that follow along with  those categories. Rather, we must respect our client’s experience as a  multiracial person in the world, beginning with asking him or her how  they would define themselves when completing an intake or assessment  form. Further, a social worker must be aware of the many forms of racism  and prejudice a person with a multiracial background might experience.  As Dalmage discusses, judgment comes from many sides with different  intentions and expectations. Being aware of the particular forms of  racism that a person who is multiracial will experience will give you  the ability to do your best to understand their experience and  empathize. 2- to 3-page.  Describe the impact of discrimination on individuals of multiracial  backgrounds. Describe the impact of biracial/multiracial or multiethnic  distinction on our society. Justify your response. How do these  distinctions relate to social work practice with individuals, families,  groups, and communities? Be sure to use APA formatting and references  from the Learning Resources and two additional peer-reviewed resources  from the Walden library about the discrimination against biracial and  multiracial individuals. Purchase the answer to view it

Government Ethics The Florida Sunshine Laws mandate “open government,” or stipulate that no governmental decisions should be hidden from public view. State employees’ incomes and

Government Ethics The Florida Sunshine Laws mandate “open government,” or stipulate that no governmental decisions should be hidden from public view. State employees’ incomes and other personal information are *all* public record, even! The idea is that citizens should be informed about decisions that will affect them. In the wake of recent federal scandals, like the Snowden NSA leak and the “secret courts” regarding the Patriot Act, do you think that there should be United States Sunshine laws? Should we demand such openness in government at the federal level? Argue for, or against Federal Sunshine Laws. minimum 200 word

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words: A researcher is investigating verbal behavior among introverts and extroverts. The researcher first tests participants

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words: A researcher is investigating verbal behavior among introverts and extroverts. The researcher first tests participants and classifies them as either introverted or extroverted. She then randomly assigns participants to a high anxiety or a low anxiety social group and observes the number of words spoken by participants. The researcher wants to learn more about the effects of both personality style—introversion or extroversion—and social situation—high or low anxiety—on verbal behavior. In this case, is defined as the number of verbal communications uttered within a 5-minute observation period. What type of design is this? Provide an example of a possible main effect that might emerge from this study. Additionally, provide an example of a possible interaction that might emerge a research article of interest to you, preferably related to your Research Proposal, and use the to analyze the article. You can use this information to form the literature review section of your research proposal. the . As a team, at least two surveys (you can use any survey that you find on the internet). Try to find one that is relatively brief —10 questions or less. Analyze the questions in the survey. Construct a table and evaluate each survey question on the following points: REFERENCES LEARNING OBJECTIVES Page 162IN THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD, THE RESEARCHER ATTEMPTS TO CONTROL ALL EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES. Suppose you want to test the hypothesis that exercise affects mood. To do this, you might put one group of people through a 1-hour aerobics workout and put another group in a room where they are asked to watch a video of people exercising for an hour. All participants would then complete the same mood assessment. Now suppose that the people in the aerobics class rate themselves as happier than those in the video viewing condition. Can the difference in mood be attributed to the difference in the exercise? Yes, there is no other difference between the groups. However, what if the aerobics group was given the mood assessment in a room with windows but the video-only group was tested in a room without windows? In that case, it would be impossible to know whether the better mood of the participants in the aerobics group was due to the exercise or to the presence of windows. Recall from that the experimental method has the advantage of allowing a relatively unambiguous interpretation of results. The researcher manipulates the independent variable to create groups and then compares the groups on the dependent variable. All other variables are kept constant, either through direct or through If the groups are different, the researcher can conclude that the independent variable caused the results because the only difference between the groups is the manipulated variable. Although the task of designing an experiment is logically elegant and exquisitely simple, you should be aware of possible pitfalls. In the hypothetical exercise experiment just described, the variables of exercise and window presence are confounded. The window variable was not kept constant. A is a variable that varies along with the independent variable; confounding occurs when the effects of the independent variable and an uncontrolled variable are intertwined so you cannot determine which of the variables is responsible for the observed effect. If the window variable had been held constant, both the exercise and the video condition would have taken place in identical rooms. That way, the effect of windows would not be a factor to consider when interpreting the difference between the groups. In short, both rooms in the exercise experiment should have had windows or both should have been windowless. Because one room had windows and one room did not, any difference in the dependent variable (mood) cannot be attributed solely to the independent variable (exercise). An alternative explanation can be offered: The difference in mood may have been caused, at least in part, by the window variable. Good experimental design requires eliminating possible confounding variables that could result in alternative explanations. A researcher can claim that the independent variable caused the results only by eliminating competing, Page 163alternative explanations. When the results of an experiment can confidently be attributed to the effect of the independent variable, the experiment is said to have (remember that internal validity refers to the ability to draw conclusions about causal relationships from our data; see ). To achieve good internal validity, the researcher must design and conduct the experiment so that only the independent variable can be the cause of the results (Campbell & Stanley, 1966). This chapter will focus on true experimental designs, which provide the highest degree of internal validity. In , we will turn to an examination of quasi-experimental designs, which lack the crucial element of random assignment while attempting to infer that an independent variable had an effect on a dependent variable. Internal validity is discussed further in and external validity, the extent to which findings may be generalized, is the focus of . The simplest possible experimental design has two variables: the independent variable and the dependent variable. The independent variable has a minimum of two levels, an experimental group and a control group. Researchers must make every effort to ensure that the only difference between the two groups is the manipulated (independent) variable. Remember, the experimental method involves control over extraneous variables, through either keeping such variables constant (experimental control) or using randomization to make sure that any extraneous variables will affect both groups equally. The basic, simple experimental design can take one of two forms: a posttest-only design or a pretest-posttest design. A researcher using a must (1) obtain two equivalent groups of participants, (2) introduce the independent variable, and (3) measure the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. The design looks like this: Thus, the first step is to choose the participants and assign them to the two groups. The procedures used must achieve equivalent groups to eliminate any Page 164potential The people selected to be in the conditions cannot differ in any systematic way. For example, you cannot select high-income individuals to participate in one condition and low-income individuals for the other. The groups can be made equivalent by randomly assigning participants to the two conditions or by having the same participants participate in both conditions. Recall from that random assignment is done in such a way that each participant is assigned to a condition randomly without regard to any personal characteristic of the individual. The R in the diagram means that participants were randomly assigned to the two groups. Next, the researcher must choose two levels of the independent variable, such as an experimental group that receives a treatment and a control group that does not. Thus, a researcher might study the effect of reward on motivation by offering a reward to one group of children before they play a game and offering no reward to children in the control group. A study testing the effect of a treatment method for reducing smoking could compare a group that receives the treatment with a control group that does not. Another approach would be to use two different amounts of the independent variable—that is, to use more reward in one group than the other or to compare the effects of different amounts of relaxation training designed to people quit smoking (e.g., 1 hour of training compared with 10 hours). Another approach would be to include two qualitatively different conditions; for example, one group of test-anxious students might write about their anxiety and the other group could participate in a meditation exercise prior to a test. All of these approaches would provide a basis for comparison of the two groups. (Of course, experiments may include more than two groups; for example, we might compare two different smoking cessation treatments along with a no-treatment control group—these types of experimental designs will be described in ). Finally, the effect of the independent variable is measured. The same measurement procedure is used for both groups, so that comparison of the two groups is possible. Because the groups were equivalent prior to the introduction of the independent variable and there were no confounding variables, any difference between the groups on the dependent variable must be attributed to the effect of the independent variable. This elegant experimental design has a high degree of internal validity. That is, we can confidently conclude that the independent variable caused the dependent variable. In actuality, a statistical significance test would be used to assess the difference between the groups. However, we do not need to be concerned with statistics at this point. An experiment must be well designed, and confounding variables must be eliminated before we can draw conclusions from statistical analyses. The only difference between the posttest-only design and the is that in the latter a pretest is given before the experimental manipulation is introduced: Page 165 This design makes it possible to ascertain that the groups were, in fact, equivalent at the beginning of the experiment. However, this precaution is usually not necessary if participants have been randomly assigned to the two groups. With a sufficiently large sample of participants, random assignment will produce groups that are virtually identical in all respects. You are probably wondering how many participants are needed in each group to make sure that random assignment has made the groups equivalent. The larger the sample, the less likelihood there is that the groups will differ in any systematic way prior to the manipulation of the independent variable. In addition, as sample size increases, so does the likelihood that any difference between the groups on the dependent variable is due to the effect of the independent variable. There are formal procedures for determining the sample size needed to detect a statistically significant effect, but as a rule of thumb you will probably need a minimum of 20 to 30 participants per condition. In some areas of research, many more participants may be necessary. Further issues in determining the number of participants needed for an experiment are described in . Each of these two experimental designs has advantages and disadvantages that influence the decision whether to include or omit a pretest. The first decision factor concerns the equivalence of the groups in the experiment. Although randomization is likely to produce equivalent groups, it is possible that, with small sample sizes, the groups will not be equal. Thus, a pretest enables the researcher to assess whether the groups are in fact equivalent to begin with. Sometimes, a pretest is necessary to select the participants in the experiment. A researcher might need to give a pretest to find the lowest or highest scorers on a smoking measure, a math anxiety test, or a prejudice measure. Once identified, the participants would be randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The pretest-posttest design immediately makes us focus on the from pretest to posttest. This emphasis on change is incorporated into the analysis of the group differences. Also, the extent of change in each individual can be Page 166examined. If a smoking reduction program appears to be effective for some individuals but not others, attempts can be made to find out why. A pretest is also necessary whenever there is a possibility that participants will drop out of the experiment; this is most likely to occur in a study that lasts over a long time period. The dropout factor in experiments is called or People may drop out for reasons unrelated to the experimental manipulation, such as illness; sometimes, however, attrition is related to the experimental manipulation. Even if the groups are equivalent to begin with, different attrition rates can make them nonequivalent. How might mortality affect a treatment program designed to reduce smoking? One possibility is that the heaviest smokers in the experimental group might leave the program. Therefore, when the posttest is given, only the light smokers would remain, so that a comparison of the experimental and control groups would show less smoking in the experimental group even if the program had no effect. In this way, attrition (mortality) becomes an alternative explanation for the results. Use of a pretest enables you to assess the effects of attrition; you can look at the pretest scores of the dropouts and know whether their scores differed from the scores of the individuals completing the study. Thus, with the pretest, it is possible to examine whether attrition is a plausible alternative explanation—an advantage in the experimental design. One disadvantage of a pretest, however, is that it may be time-consuming and awkward to administer in the context of the particular experimental procedures being used. Perhaps most important, a pretest can sensitize participants to what you are studying, enabling them to figure out what is being studied and (potentially) why. They may then react differently to the manipulation than they would have without the pretest. When a pretest affects the way participants react to the manipulation, it is very difficult to generalize the results to people who have not received a pretest. That is, the independent variable may not have an effect in the real world, where pretests are rarely given. We will examine this issue more fully in . If awareness of the pretest is a problem, the pretest can be disguised. One way to do this is by administering it in a completely different situation with a different experimenter. Another approach is to embed the pretest in a set of irrelevant measures so it is not obvious that the researcher is interested in a particular topic. It is also possible to assess the impact of the pretest directly with a combination of both the posttest-only and the pretest-posttest design. In this design, half the participants receive only the posttest, and the other half receive both the pretest and the posttest (see ). This is formally called a . If there is no impact of the pretest, the posttest scores will be the same in the two control groups (with and without the pretest) and in the two experimental groups. Garvin and Damson (2008) employed a Solomon four-group design to study the effect of viewing female fitness magazine models on a measure of depressed mood. Female college students spent 30 minutes viewing either the fitness magazines or magazines such as . Two possible outcomes of this study are shown in . The top graph illustrates an outcome in which the pretest has no impact: The fitness magazine viewing results in higher depression in both the posttest-only and the pretest-posttest condition. This is what was found in the study. The lower graph shows an outcome in which there is a difference between the treatment and control groups when there is a pretest, but there is no group difference when the pretest is absent. Page 167 FIGURE 8.1 Solomon four-group design FIGURE 8.2 Examples of outcomes of Solomon four-group design Page 168 Recall that there are two basic ways of assigning participants to experimental conditions. In one procedure, participants are randomly assigned to the various conditions so that each participates in only one group. This is called an It is also known as a because comparisons are made between different groups of participants. In the other procedure, participants are in all conditions. In an experiment with two conditions, for example, each participant is assigned to both levels of the independent variable. This is called a because each participant is measured after receiving each level of the independent variable. You will also see this called a in this design, comparisons are made within the same group of participants (subjects). In the next two sections, we will examine each of these designs in detail. In an independent groups design, different participants are assigned to each of the conditions using This means that the decision to assign an individual to a particular condition is completely random and beyond the control of the researcher. For example, you could ask for the participant’s month of birth; individuals born in odd-numbered months would be assigned to one group and those born in even-numbered months would be assigned to the other group. In practice, researchers use a sequence of random numbers to determine assignment. Such numbers come from a random number generator such as Research Randomizer, available online at or QuickCalcs at ; Excel can also generate random numbers. These programs allow you to randomly determine the assignment of each participant to the various groups in your study. Random assignment will prevent any systematic biases, and the groups can be considered equivalent in terms of participant characteristics such as income, intelligence, age, personality, and political attitudes. In this way, participant differences cannot be an explanation for results of the experiment. As we noted in , in an experiment on the effects of exercise on anxiety, lower levels of Page 169anxiety in the exercise group than in the no-exercise group cannot be explained by saying that people in the groups are somehow different on characteristics such as income, education, or personality. An alternative procedure is to have the individuals participate in all of the groups. This is called a repeated measures experimental design. Consider an experiment investigating the relationship between the meaningfulness of material and the learning of that material. In an independent groups design, one group of participants is given highly meaningful material to learn and another group receives less meaningful material. For example, the meaningful material might include a story relating the material to a real-life event. In a repeated measures design, the same individuals participate in both conditions. Thus, participants might first read low-meaningful material and take a recall test to measure learning; the same participants would then read high-meaningful material and take the recall test. You can see why this is called a repeated measures design; participants are repeatedly measured on the dependent variable after being in each condition of the experiment. The repeated measures design has several advantages. An obvious one is that fewer research participants are needed, because each individual participates in all conditions. When participants are scarce or when it is costly to run each individual in the experiment, a repeated measures design may be preferred. In much research on perception, for instance, extensive training of participants is necessary before the actual experiment can begin. Such research often involves only a few individuals who participate in all conditions of the experiment. An additional advantage of repeated measures designs is that they are extremely sensitive to finding statistically significant differences between groups. This is because we have data from the same people in both conditions. To illustrate why this is important, consider possible data from the recall experiment. Using an independent groups design, the first three participants in the high-meaningful condition had scores of 68, 81, and 92. The first three participants in the low-meaningful condition had scores of 64, 78, and 85. If you calculated an average score for each condition, you would find that the average recall was a bit higher when the material was more meaningful. However, there is a lot of variability in the scores in both groups. You certainly are not finding that everyone in the high-meaningful condition has high recall and everyone in the other condition has low recall. The reason for this variability is that people differ—there are individual differences in recall abilities, so there is a range of scores in both conditions. This is part of “random error” in the scores that we cannot explain. Page 170However, if the same scores were obtained from the first three participants in a repeated measures design, the conclusions would be much different. Let’s line up the recall scores for the two conditions: With a repeated measures design, the individual differences can be seen and explained. It is true that some people score higher than others because of individual differences in recall abilities, but now you can much more clearly see the effect of the independent variable on recall scores. It is much easier to separate the systematic individual differences from the effect of the independent variable: Scores are higher for every participant in the high-meaningful condition. As a result, we are much more likely to detect an effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. The major problem with a repeated measures design stems from the fact that the different conditions must be presented in a particular sequence. Suppose that there is greater recall in the high-meaningful condition. Although this result could be caused by the manipulation of the meaningfulness variable, the result could also simply be an —the order of presenting the treatments affects the dependent variable. Thus, greater recall in the high-meaningful condition could be attributed to the fact that the high-meaningful task came second in the order of presentation of the conditions. Performance on the second task might improve merely because of the practice gained on the first task. This improvement is in fact called a , or learning effect. It is also possible that a could result in a deterioration in performance from the first to the second condition as the research participant becomes tired, bored, or distracted. It is also possible for the effect of the first treatment to carry over to influence the response to the second treatment—this is known as a . Suppose the independent variable is severity of a crime. After reading about the less severe crime, the more severe one might seem much worse to participants than it normally would. In addition, reading about the severe crime might subsequently cause participants to view the less severe crime as much milder than they normally would. In both cases, the experience with one condition carried over to affect the response to the second condition. In this example, the carryover effect was a psychological effect of the way that the two situations contrasted with one another. A carryover effect may also occur when the first condition produces a change that is still influencing the person when the second condition is introduced. Suppose the first condition involves experiencing failure at an important Page 171task. This may result in a temporary increase in stress responses. How long does it take before the person returns to a normal state? If the second condition is introduced too soon, the stress may still be affecting the participant. There are two approaches to dealing with order effects. The first is to employ counterbalancing techniques. The second is to devise a procedure in which the interval between conditions is long enough to minimize the influence of the first condition on the second. Complete counterbalancing In a repeated measures design, it is very important to counterbalance the order of the conditions. With complete , all possible orders of presentation are included in the experiment. In the example of a study on learning high- and low-meaningful material, half of the participants would be randomly assigned to the low-high order, and the other half would be assigned to the high-low order. This design is illustrated as follows: By counterbalancing the order of conditions, it is possible to determine the extent to which order is influencing the results. In the hypothetical memory study, you would know whether the greater recall in the high-meaningful condition is consistent for both orders; you would also know the extent to which a practice effect is responsible for the results. Counterbalancing principles can be extended to experiments with three or more groups. With three groups, there are 6 possible orders (3! = 3 × 2 × 1 = 6). With four groups, the number of possible orders increases to 24 (4! = 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24); you would need a minimum of 24 participants to represent each order, and you would need 48 participants to have only two participants per order. Imagine the number of orders possible in an experiment by Shepard and Metzler (1971). In their basic experimental paradigm, each participant is shown a three-dimensional object along with the same figure rotated at one of 10 different angles ranging from 0 degrees to 180 degrees (see the sample objects illustrated in ). Each time, the participant presses a button when it is determined that the two figures are the same or different. The dependent variable is reaction time—the amount of time it takes to decide whether the figures are the same or different. The results show that reaction time becomes longer as the angle of rotation increases away from the original. In this experiment with 10 conditions, there are 3,628,800 possible orders! Fortunately, there are alternatives to complete counterbalancing that still allow researchers to draw valid conclusions about the effect of the independent variable without running some 3.6 million tests. Page 172 FIGURE 8.3 Three-dimensional figures used by Shepard and Metzler (1971) Adapted from “Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects,” by R. N. Shepard and J. Metzler, 1971, , , pp. 701–703. Latin squares A technique to control for order effects without having all possible orders is to construct a : a limited set of orders constructed to ensure that (1) each condition appears at each ordinal position and (2) each condition precedes and follows each condition one time. Using a Latin square to determine order controls for most order effects without having to include all possible orders. Suppose you replicated the Shepard and Metzler (1971) study using only 4 of the 10 rotations: 0, 60, 120, and 180 degrees. A Latin square for these four conditions is shown in . Each row in the square is one of the orders of the conditions (the conditions are labeled A, B, C, and D). The number of orders in a Latin square is equal to the number of conditions; thus, if there are four conditions, there are four orders. When you conduct your study using the Latin square to determine order, you need at least one participant per row. Usually, you will have two or more participants per row; the number of participants tested in each order must be equal. FIGURE 8.4 A Latin square with four conditions The four conditions were randomly given letter designations. A = 60 degrees, B = 0 degrees, C = 180 degrees, and D = 120 degrees. Each row represents a different order of running the conditions. Page 173 In addition to counterbalancing the order of treatments, researchers need to carefully determine the time interval between presentation of treatments and possible activities between them. A rest period may counteract a fatigue effect; attending to an unrelated task between treatments may reduce the possibility that participants will contrast the first treatment with the second. If the treatment is the administration of a drug that takes time to wear off, the interval between treatments may have to be a day or more. Lane, Cherek, Tcheremissine, Lieving, and Pietras (2005) used a repeated measures design to study the effect of marijuana on risk taking. The subjects came the lab in the morning and passed a drug test. They were then given one of three marijuana doses. The dependent variable was a measure of risk taking. Subjects were tested in this way for each dosage. Because of the time necessary for the effects of the drug to wear off, the three conditions were run on separate days at least five days apart. A similarly long time interval would be needed with procedures that produce emotional changes, such as heightened anxiety or anger. You may have noted that introduction of an extended time interval may create a separate problem: Participants will have to commit to the experiment for a longer period of time. This can make it more difficult to recruit volunteers, and if the study extends over two or more days, some participants may drop out of the experiment altogether. And for the record, increased marijuana doses did result in making riskier decisions. Repeated measures designs have two major advantages over independent groups designs: (1) a reduction in the number of participants required to complete the experiment and (2) greater control over participant differences and thus greater ability to detect an effect of the independent variable. As noted previously, in certain areas of research, these advantages are very important. However, the disadvantages of repeated measures designs and the precautions required to deal with them are usually sufficient reasons for researchers to use independent groups designs. A very different consideration in whether to use a repeated measures design concerns generalization to conditions in the “real world.” Greenwald (1976) has pointed out that in actual everyday situations, we sometimes encounter independent variables in an independent groups fashion: We encounter only Page 174one condition without a contrasting comparison. However, some independent variables are most frequently encountered in a repeated measures fashion: Both conditions appear, and our responses occur in the context of exposure to both levels of the independent variable. Thus, for example, if you are interested in how a defendant’s characteristics affects jurors, an independent groups design may be most appropriate because actual jurors focus on a single defendant in a trial. However, if you are interested in the effects of a job applicant’s characteristics on employers, a repeated measures design would be reasonable because employers typically consider several applicants at once. Whether to use an independent groups or repeated measures design may be partially determined by these generalization issues. Finally, any experimental procedure that produces a relatively permanent change in an individual cannot be used in a repeated measures design. Examples include a psychotherapy treatment or a surgical procedure such as the removal of brain tissue. A somewhat more complicated method of assigning participants to conditions in an experiment is called a . Instead of simply randomly assigning participants to groups, the goal is to first match people on a participant variable such as age or a personality trait (see ). The matching variable will be either the dependent measure or a variable that is strongly related to the dependent variable. For example, in a learning experiment, participants might be matched on the basis of scores on a cognitive ability measure or even grade point average. If cognitive ability is not related to the dependent measure, however, matching would be a waste of time. The goal is to achieve the same equivalency of groups that is achieved with a repeated measures design without the necessity of having the same participants in both conditions. The design looks like this: When using a matched pairs design, the first step is to obtain a measure of the matching variable from each individual. The participants are then rank ordered from highest to lowest based on their scores on the matching variable. Now the researcher can form matched pairs that are approximately equal on the characteristic (the highest two participants form the first pair, the next Page 175two form the second pair, and so on). Finally, the members of each pair are randomly assigned to the conditions in the experiment. (Note that there are methods of matching pairs of individuals on the basis of scores derived from multiple variables; these methods are described briefly in .) A matched pairs design ensures that the groups are equivalent (on the matching variable) prior to introduction of the independent variable manipulation. This assurance could be particularly important with small sample sizes, because random assignment procedures are more likely to produce equivalent groups as the sample size increases. Matching, then, is most likely to be used when only a few participants are available or when it is very costly to run large numbers of individuals in the experiment—as long as there is a strong relationship between a dependent measure and the matching variable. The result is a greater ability to detect a statistically significant effect of the independent variable because it is possible to account for individual differences in responses to the independent variable, just as we saw with a repeated measures design. (The issues of variability and statistical significance are discussed further in and .) However useful they are, matching procedures can be costly and time-consuming, because they require measuring participants on the matching variable prior to the experiment. Such efforts are worthwhile only when the matching variable is strongly related to the dependent measure and you know that the relationship exists prior to conducting your study. For these reasons, matched pairs is not a commonly used experimental design. However, we will discuss matching again in when describing quasi-experimental designs that do not have random assignment to conditions. You now have a fundamental understanding of the design of experiments. In the next chapter, we will consider issues that arise when you decide how to actually conduct an experiment. ILLUSTRATIVE ARTICLE: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We are constantly connected. We can be reached by cell phone almost anywhere, at any time. Text messages compete for our attention. Email and instant messaging (IM) can interrupt our attention whenever we are using a cell phone or computer. Is this a problem? Most people like to think of themselves as experts at multitasking. Is that true? A study conducted by Bowman, Levine, Waite, and Gendron (2010) attempted to determine whether IMing during a reading session affected test performance. In this study, participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: one where they were asked to IM prior to reading, one in which they were asked to IM during reading, and one in which IMing was not allowed at all. Afterward, all participants completed a brief test on the material presented in the reading. First, acquire and read the article:Page 176 Bowman, L. L., Levine, L. E., Waite, B. M., & Gendron, M. (2010). Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading. , 927–931. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.09.024 After reading the article, answer the following questions: 1. This experiment used a posttest-only design. How could the researchers have used a pretest-posttest design? What would the advantages and disadvantages be of using a pretest-posttest design? 2. This experiment used an independent groups design. a. How could they have used a repeated measures design? What would have been the advantages and disadvantages of using a repeated measures design? b. How could they have used a matched pairs design? What variables do you think would have been worthwhile to match participants on? What would have been the advantages and disadvantages of using a matched pairs design? 3. What potential confounding variables can you think of? 4. In what way does this study reflect—or not reflect—the reality of studying and test taking in college? That is, how would you evaluate the external validity of this study? 5. How good was the internal validity of this experiment? 6. What were the researchers’ key conclusions of this experiment? 7. Would you have predicted the results obtained in this experiment? Why or why not? Attrition (also mortality) ( ) Between-subjects design (also independent groups design) ( ) Carryover effect ( ) Confounding variable ( ) Counterbalancing ( ) Fatigue effect ( ) Independent groups design (also between-subjects design) ( ) Internal validity ( ) Latin square ( ) Matched pairs design ( ) Mortality (also attrition) ( ) Order effect ( ) Posttest-only design ( ) Practice effect (also learning effect) ( ) Pretest-posttest design ( )Page 177 Random assignment ( ) Repeated measures design (also within-subjects design) ( ) Selection differences ( ) Solomon four-group design ( ) Within-subjects design (also repeated measures design) ( ) LEARNING OBJECTIVES Page 180 THE PREVIOUS CHAPTERS HAVE LAID THE FOUNDATION FOR PLANNING A RESEARCH INVESTIGATION. In this chapter, we will focus on some very practical aspects of conducting research. How do you select the research participants? What should you consider when deciding how to manipulate an independent variable? What should you worry about when you measure a variable? What do you do when the study is completed? The focus of your study may be children, college students, elderly adults, employees, rats, pigeons, or even cockroaches or flatworms; in all cases, the participants or subjects must somehow be selected. The method used to select participants can have a profound impact on external validity. Remember that external validity is defined as the extent to which results from a study can be generalized to other populations and settings. Most research projects involve sampling research participants from a population of interest. The population is composed of all of the individuals of interest to the researcher. Samples may be drawn from the population using probability sampling or nonprobability sampling techniques. When it is important to accurately describe the population, you must use probability sampling. This is why probability sampling is so crucial when conducting scientific polls. Much research, on the other hand, is more interested in testing hypotheses about behavior: attempting to detect whether causes rather than describing a population. Here, the two focuses of the study are the relationships between the variables being studied and tests of predictions derived from theories of behavior. In such cases, the participants may be found in the easiest way possible using nonprobability sampling methods, also known as haphazard or “convenience” methods. You may ask students in introductory psychology classes to participate, knock on doors in your dorm to find people to be tested, or choose a class in which to test children simply because you know the teacher. Nothing is wrong with such methods as long as you recognize that they affect the ability to generalize your results to some larger population. In , we examine the issues of generalizing from the rather atypical samples of college students and other conveniently obtained research participants. You will also need to determine your sample size. How many participants will you need in your study? In general, increasing your sample size increases the likelihood that your results will be statistically significant, because larger samples provide more accurate estimates of population values (see , ). Most researchers take note of the sample sizes in the research area being studied and select a sample size that is typical for studies in the area. A more formal approach to selecting a sample size, called power analysis, is discussed in . Page 181 To manipulate an independent variable, you have to construct an operational definition of the variable (see ). That is, you must turn a conceptual variable into a set of operations—specific instructions, events, and stimuli to be presented to the research participants. The manipulation of the independent variable, then, is when a researcher changes the conditions to which participants are exposed. In addition, the independent and dependent variables must be introduced within the context of the total experimental setting. This has been called (Aronson, Brewer, & Carlsmith, 1985). In setting the stage, you usually have to supply the participants with the information necessary for them to provide their informed consent to participate (informed consent is covered in ). This generally includes information about the underlying rationale of the study. Sometimes, the rationale given is completely truthful, although only rarely will you want to tell participants the actual hypothesis. For example, you might say that you are conducting an experiment on memory when, in fact, you are studying a specific aspect of memory (your independent variable). If participants know what you are studying, they may try to confirm (or even deny) the hypothesis, or they may try to look good by behaving in the most socially acceptable way. If you find that deception is necessary, you have a special obligation to address the deception when you debrief the participants at the conclusion of the experiment. There are no clear-cut rules for setting the stage, except that the experimental setting must seem plausible to the participants, nor are there any clear-cut rules for translating conceptual variables into specific operations. Exactly how the variable is manipulated depends on the variable and the cost, practicality, and ethics of the procedures being considered. Straightforward manipulations Researchers are usually able to manipulate an independent variable with relative simplicity by presenting written, verbal, or visual material to the participants. Such manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentations. Stimuli may be presented verbally, in written form, via videotape, or with a computer. Let’s look at a few examples. Goldstein, Cialdini, and Griskevicius (2008) were interested in the influence of signs that hotels leave in their bathrooms encouraging guests to reuse their towels. In their research, they simply printed signs that were hooked on towel shelves in the rooms of single guests staying at least two nights. In a standard message, the sign read “HELP SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT. You can show your respect of nature and save the environment by reusing Page 182towels during your stay.” In this case, 35% of the guests reused their towels on the second day. Another condition invoked a social norm that other people are reusing towels: “JOIN YOUR FELLOW GUESTS IN HELPING TO SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT. Almost 75% of guests who are asked to participate in our new resource savings program do by using their towels more than once. You can join your fellow guests in this program to save the environment by reusing your towels during your stay.” This sign resulted in 44% reusing their towels. As you might expect, the researchers have extended this research to study ways that the sign can be even more effective in increasing conservation. Most memory research relies on straightforward manipulations. For example, Coltheart and Langdon (1998) displayed lists of words to participants and later measured recall. The word lists differed on phonological similarity: Some lists had words that sounded similar, such as and and other lists had dissimilar words such as and They found that lists with dissimilar words are recalled more accurately. Educational programs are most often straightforward. Pawlenko, Safer, Wise, and Holfeld (2013) examined the effectiveness of three training programs designed to improve jurors’ ability to evaluate eyewitness testimony. Subjects viewed one of three 15-minute slide presentations on a computer screen. The Interview-Identification-Eyewitness training focused on three steps to analyze eyewitness evidence: Ask if the eyewitness interviews were done properly, ask if identification methods were proper, and evaluate if the conditions of the crime scene allowed for an accurate identification. A second presentation termed “Biggers training” was a presentation of five eyewitness factors that the Supreme Court determined should be used (developed in a case called ). The Jury Duty presentation was a summary of standard information provided to jurors such as the need to be fair and impartial and the importance of hearing all evidence before reaching a verdict. After viewing the presentations, subjects read a trial transcript that included problems with the eyewitness identification procedures. The subjects in the Interview-Identification-Eyewitness conditions were most likely to use these problems in reaching a verdict. As a final example of a straightforward manipulation, consider a study by Mazer, Murphy, and Simonds (2009) on the effect of college teacher self-disclosure (via Facebook) on perceptions of teacher effectiveness. For this study, students read one of three Facebook profiles that were created for a volunteer teacher, one for each of the high-, medium-, and low-disclosure conditions. Level of disclosure was manipulated by changing the number and nature of photographs, biographical information, favorite movies/books/quotes, campus groups, and posts on “the wall.” After viewing the profile to which they were assigned, participants rated the teacher on several dimensions. Higher disclosure resulted in perceptions of greater caring and trustworthiness; however, disclosure was not related to perceptions of teacher competence. You will find that most manipulations of independent variables in all areas of research are straightforward. Researchers vary the difficulty of material to Page 183be learned, motivation levels, the way questions are asked, characteristics of people to be judged, and a variety of other factors in a straightforward manner. Staged manipulations Other manipulations are less straightforward. Sometimes, it is necessary to stage events during the experiment in order to manipulate the independent variable successfully. When this occurs, the manipulation is called a or Staged manipulations are most frequently used for two reasons. First, the researcher may be trying to create some psychological state in the participants, such as frustration, anger, or a temporary lowering of self-esteem. For example, Zitek and her colleagues studied what is termed a (Zitek, Jordan, Monin, & Leach, 2010). Their hypothesis is that the feeling of being unfairly wronged leads to a sense of entitlement and, as a result, the tendency to be more selfish with others. In their study, all participants played a computer game. The researchers programmed the game so that some participants would lose when the game crashed. This is an unfair outcome, because the participants lost for no good reason. Participants in the other condition also lost, but they thought it was because the game itself was very difficult. The participants experiencing the broken game did in fact behave more selfishly after the game; they later allocated themselves more money than deserved when competing with another participant. Second, a staged manipulation may be necessary to simulate some situation that occurs in the real world. Recall the Milgram obedience experiment that was described in . In that study, an elaborate procedure—ostensibly to study learning—was constructed to actually study obedience to an authority. Or consider a study on computer multitasking conducted by Bowman, Levine, Waite, and Gendron (2010), wherein students read academic material presented on a computer screen. In one condition, the participants received and responded to instant messages while they were reading. Other participants did not receive any messages. Student performance on a test was equal in the two conditions. However, students in the instant message condition took longer to read the material (after the time spent on the message was subtracted from the total time working on the computer). Staged manipulations frequently employ a (sometimes termed an “accomplice”). Usually, the confederate appears to be another participant in an experiment but is actually part of the manipulation (we discussed the use of confederates in ). A confederate may be useful to create a particular social situation. For example, Hermans, Herman, Larsen, and Engels (2010) studied whether food intake by males is affected by the amount of food consumed by a companion. Participants were recruited for a study on evaluation of movie trailers. The participant and a confederate sat in a comfortable setting in which they viewed and evaluated three trailers. They were then told that they needed a break before viewing the next trailers; snacks were available if they were interested. In one condition, the confederate took a large serving of snacks. A small serving was taken in another condition, and the confederate Page 184did not eat in the third condition. The researchers then measured the amount consumed by the actual participants; they did model the amount consumed by the confederate but only when they were hungry. FIGURE 9.1 Example of the Asch line judgment task The classic Asch (1956) conformity experiment provides another example of how confederates may be used. Asch gathered people into groups and asked them to respond to a line judgment task such as the one in . Which of the three test lines matches the standard? Although this appears to be a simple task, Asch made it more interesting by having several confederates announce the same incorrect judgment prior to asking the actual participant; this procedure was repeated over a number of trials with different line judgments. Asch was able to demonstrate how easy it is to produce conformity—participants conformed to the unanimous majority on many of the trials even though the correct answer was clear. Finally, confederates may be used in field experiments as well as laboratory research. As described in , Lee, Schwarz, Taubman, and Hou (2010) studied the impact of public sneezing on the perception of unrelated risks by having an accomplice either sneeze or not sneeze (control condition) while walking by someone in a public area of a university. A researcher then approached those people with a request to complete a questionnaire, which they described as a “class project.” The questionnaire measured participants’ perceptions of average Americans’ risk of contracting a serious disease. The researchers found that, indeed, being around a person who sneezes increases self-reported perception of risk. As you can see, staged manipulations demand a great deal of ingenuity and even some acting ability. They are used to involve the participants in an ongoing social situation that the individuals perceive not as an experiment but as a real experience. Researchers assume that the result will be natural behavior that truly reflects the feelings and intentions of the participants. However, such procedures allow for a great deal of subtle interpersonal communication that is hard to put into words; this may make it difficult for other researchers to replicate the experiment. Also, a complex manipulation is difficult to interpret. If many things happened during the experiment, what thing was responsible for the results? In general, it is easier to interpret results when the manipulation is relatively straightforward. However, the nature of the variable you are studying sometimes demands complicated procedures. Page 185 The simplest experimental design has two levels of the independent variable. In planning the experiment, the researcher has to choose these levels. A general principle to follow is to make the manipulation as strong as possible. A strong manipulation maximizes the differences between the two groups and increases the chances that the independent variable will have a statistically significant effect on the dependent variable. To illustrate, suppose you think that there is a positive linear relationship between attitude similarity and liking (“birds of a feather flock together”). In conducting the experiment, you could arrange for participants to encounter another person, a confederate. In one group, the confederate and the participant would share similar attitudes; in the other group, the confederate and the participant would be dissimilar. Similarity, then, is the independent variable, and liking is the dependent variable. Now you have to decide on the amount of similarity. shows the hypothesized relationship between attitude similarity and liking at 10 different levels of similarity. Level 1 represents the least amount of similarity with no common attitudes, and level 10 the greatest (all attitudes are similar). To achieve the strongest manipulation, the participants in one group would encounter a confederate of level 1 similarity; those in the other group would encounter a confederate of level 10 similarity. This would result in the greatest difference in the liking means—a 9-point difference. A weaker manipulation—using levels 4 and 7, for example—would result in a smaller mean difference. A strong manipulation is particularly important in the early stages of research, when the researcher is most interested in demonstrating that a relationship does, in fact, exist. If the early experiments reveal a relationship between the variables, subsequent research can systematically manipulate the other levels of the independent variable to provide a more detailed picture of the relationship. FIGURE 9.2 Relationship between attitude similarity and liking Page 186The principle of using the strongest manipulation possible should be tempered by at least two considerations. The first concerns the external validity of a study: The strongest possible manipulation may entail a situation that rarely, if ever, occurs in the real world. For example, an extremely strong crowding manipulation might involve placing so many people in a room that no one could move—a manipulation that might significantly affect a variety of behaviors. However, we would not know if the results were similar to those occurring in more common, less crowded situations, such as many classrooms or offices. A second consideration is ethics: A manipulation should be as strong as possible within the bounds of ethics. A strong manipulation of fear or anxiety, for example, might not be possible because of the potential physical and psychological harm to participants. Cost is another factor in the decision about how to manipulate the independent variable. Researchers who have limited monetary resources may not be able to afford expensive equipment, salaries for confederates, or payments to participants in long-term experiments. Also, a manipulation in which participants must be run individually requires more of the researcher’s time than a manipulation that allows running many individuals in a single setting. In this respect, a manipulation that uses straightforward presentation of written or verbal material is less costly than a complex, staged experimental manipulation. Some government and private agencies offer grants for research; because much research is costly, continued public support of these agencies is very important. In previous chapters, we have discussed various aspects of measuring variables, including reliability, validity, and reactivity of measures; observational methods; and the development of self-report measures for questionnaires and interviews. In this section, we will focus on measurement considerations that are particularly relevant to experimental research. The dependent variable in most experiments is one of three general types: self-report, behavioral, or physiological. Self-report measures can be used to measure attitudes, liking for someone, judgments about someone’s personality characteristics, intended behaviors, emotional states, attributions about why someone performed well or poorly on a task, confidence in one’s judgments, and many other aspects of human thought and behavior. Rating scales with descriptive anchors Page 187(endpoints) are most commonly used. For example, Funk and Todorov (2013) studied the impact of a facial tattoo on impressions of a man accused of assault. The man, Jack, had punched another man in a bar following a dispute over a spilled drink. A description of the incident included a photo of Jack with or without a facial tattoo. After viewing the photo and reading the description, subjects responded to several questions on a 7-point scale that included the following: How likely is it that Jack is guilty? Behavioral measures are direct observations of behaviors. As with self-reports, measurements of an almost endless number of behaviors are possible. Sometimes, the researcher may record whether a given behavior occurs—for example, whether an individual responds to a request for , makes an error on a test, or chooses to engage in one activity rather than another. Often, the researcher must decide whether to record the number of times a behavior occurs in a given time period—the of a behavior; how quickly a response occurs after a stimulus—a or how long a behavior lasts—a measure of The decision about which aspect of behavior to measure depends on which is most theoretically relevant for the study of a particular problem or which measure logically follows from the independent variable manipulation. As an example, consider a study on eating behavior while viewing a food-related or nature television program (Bodenlos & Wormuth, 2013). Participants had access to chocolate-covered candies, cheese curls, and carrots that were weighed before and after the session. More candy was consumed during the food-related program; there were no differences for the other two foods. Sometimes the behavioral measure is not an actual behavior but a behavioral intention or choice. Recall the study described in in which subjects decided how much hot sauce another subject would have to consume later in the study (Vasquez, Pederson, Bushman, Kelley, Demeestere, & Miller, 2013). They did not actually pour the hot sauce but they did commit to an action rather than simply indicate their feelings about the other subject. Physiological measures are recordings of responses of the body. Many such measurements are available; examples include the (GSR), (EMG), and (EEG). The GSR is a measure of general emotional arousal and anxiety; it measures the electrical conductance of the skin, which changes when sweating occurs. The EMG measures muscle tension and is frequently used as a measure of tension or stress. The EEG is a measure of electrical activity of brain cells. It can be used to record general brain arousal as a response to different situations, such as activity in certain parts of the brain as learning occurs or brain activity during different stages of sleep. Page 188The GSR, EMG, and EEG have long been used as physiological indicators of important psychological variables. Many other physiological measures are available, including temperature, heart rate, and analysis of blood or urine (see Cacioppo & Tassinary, 1990). In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an increasingly important tool for researchers in behavioral neuroscience. An provides an image of an individual’s brain structure. It allows scientists to compare the brain structure of individuals with a particular condition (e.g., a cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) with the brain structure of people without the condition. In addition, a (fMRI) allows researchers to scan areas of the brain while a research participant performs a physical or cognitive task. The data provide evidence for what brain processes are involved in these tasks. For example, a researcher can see which areas of the brain are most active when performing different memory tasks. In one study using fMRI, elderly adults with higher levels of education not only performed better on memory tasks than their less educated peers, but they also used areas of their frontal cortex that were not used by other elderly and younger individuals (Springer, McIntosh, Winocur, & Grady, 2005). Although it is convenient to describe single dependent variables, most studies include more than one dependent measure. One reason to use multiple measures stems from the fact that a variable can be measured in a variety of concrete ways (recall the discussion of operational definitions in ). In a study on the effects of an employee wellness program on health, the researchers might measure self-reported fatigue, stress, physical activity, and eating habits along with physical measures of blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol, and weight (cf. Clark et al, 2011). If the independent variable has the same effect on several measures of the same dependent variable, our confidence in the results is increased. It is also useful to know whether the same independent variable affects some measures but not others. For example, an independent variable designed to affect liking might have an effect on some measures of liking (e.g., desirability as a person to work with) but not others (e.g., desirability as a dating partner). Researchers may also be interested in studying the effects of an independent variable on several different behaviors. For example, an experiment on the effects of a new classroom management technique might examine academic performance, interaction rates among classmates, and teacher satisfaction. When you have more than one dependent measure, the question of arises. Does it matter which measures are made first? Is it possible that the results for a particular measure will be different if the measure comes earlier rather than later? The issue is similar to the order effects that were discussed in in the context of repeated measures designs. Perhaps responding to the first measures will somehow affect responses on the later measures, Page 189or perhaps the participants attend more closely to first measures than to later measures. There are two possible ways of responding to this issue. If it appears that the problem is serious, the order of presenting the measures can be counterbalanced using the techniques described in . Often there are no indications from previous research that order is a serious problem. In this case, the prudent response is to present the most important measures first and the less important ones later. With this approach, order will not be a problem in interpreting the results on the most important dependent variables. Even though order may be a potential problem for some of the measures, the overall impact on the study is minimized. Making multiple measurements in a single experiment is valuable when it is feasible to do so. However, it may be necessary to conduct a separate series of experiments to explore the effects of an independent variable on various behaviors. The dependent variable should be sensitive enough to detect differences between groups. A measure of liking that asks, “Do you like this person?” with only a simple “yes” or “no” response alternative is less sensitive than one that asks, “How much do you like this person?” on a 5- or 7-point scale. With the first measure, people may tend to be nice and say yes even if they have some negative feelings about the person. The second measure allows for a gradation of liking; such a scale would make it easier to detect differences in amount of liking. The issue of is particularly important when measuring human performance. Memory can be measured using recall, recognition, or reaction time; cognitive task performance might be measured by examining speed or number of errors during a proofreading task; physical performance can be measured through various motor tasks. Such tasks vary in their difficulty. Sometimes a task is so easy that everyone does well regardless of the conditions that are manipulated by the independent variable. This results in what is called a —the independent variable appears to have no effect on the dependent measure only because participants quickly reach the maximum performance level. The opposite problem occurs when a task is so difficult that hardly anyone can perform well; this is called a The need to consider sensitivity of measures is nicely illustrated in the Freedman et al. (1971) study of crowding mentioned in . The study examined the effect of crowding on various measures of cognitive task performance and found that crowding did not impair performance. You could conclude that crowding has no effect on performance; however, it is also possible that the measures were either too easy or too difficult to detect an effect of crowding. In fact, subsequent research showed that the tasks may have been too easy; when subjects perform complex cognitive tasks in laboratory or natural settings, crowding does result in lower performance (Bruins & Barber, 2000; Paulus, Annis, Seta, Schkade, & Matthews, 1976). Page 190 Another consideration is cost—some measures may be more costly than others. Paper-and-pencil self-report measures are generally inexpensive; measures that require trained observers or elaborate equipment can become quite costly. A researcher studying nonverbal behavior, for example, might have to use a video camera to record each participant’s behaviors in a situation. Two or more observer

ENG 123: Assignment Two, Milestone One Guidelines and Rubric Draft Overview: Persuasion is a constant in each and every one of our lives. No matter

ENG 123: Assignment Two, Milestone One Guidelines and Rubric Draft Overview: Persuasion is a constant in each and every one of our lives. No matter where we look, what we read, what we see, or who we interact with, we are inevitably going to encounter some form of persuasion. Advertisements want us to buy things. Newspapers and television want to convince us of what we should feel about events. We are put into positions where we must defend our thoughts and beliefs to others, and the process we apply is typically some form of persuasion. Persuasive writing is one of the most powerful forms of writing—it has the ability to influence one’s thoughts, and also the ability to change one’s mind about a particular issue. The persuasive essay is an ideal opportunity to support an opinion on an issue utilizing researched facts and information. This also gives the chance to recognize that there is an opposing viewpoint to a position and to refute their argument, noting they are the intended audience of the piece. Prompt: For this milestone, you will submit a draft of your persuasive essay. At this point in the course, if you have completed the previous milestone guided activities, the textboxes should be combined and transformed into a draft. This milestone will you address the critical elements from Sections II – IV below, which will ultimately inform your final submission of the persuasive essay. You have until the deadline to work on this draft. Whatever is completed by the deadline will be submitted to your instructor for grading and feedback. Specifically the following critical elements must be addressed: I. Introduction: This is where readers will have a chance to get an idea of what your essay will be about and what you will prove throughout. Do not give all of your information away here, but give readers a sample of what is to come. Do not forget to review your writing plan to make sure you are hitting all of the points that you planned out, while also stating your argument. A. Overview the issue you have selected, briefly describing main points and your argument. B. Compose an engaging thesis that states the argument that you will prove and support throughout your essay. This statement will give direction to your essay and should be well thought out. II. Body: The body is your opportunity to describe and support your argument in depth. Make sure your thoughts and evidence are clear and organized in a way that is easy for readers to follow and understand. A. Be sure that you write multiple paragraphs that are focused, clearly state their intent, and move logically from one to the other, building the thesis argument as the essay progresses. B. Your body paragraphs should support your argument by combining thoughts and ideas with evidence from sources. There is no such thing as a right or wrong argument; the key is how it is supported and the quality of the evidence used. C. Address and refute any opposing viewpoints to your argument. This is your chance to discredit any opposing views, thus strengthening your own. III. Conclusion: Think of the conclusion as a review of your argument. Use this section to restate your argument and remind readers of your supporting evidence. Think of this as your last chance to persuade readers to agree with you. A. Review your argument. This section should consist of a review of your main points employed to support your argument. Think of this as your last chance to prove your point or your closing arguments. B. Your conclusion should articulate insights about your argument established through your essay. This should follow logically from your essay, referring to key points or quotes used to support your argument. Rubric Guidelines for Submission: This milestone will be completed through the interactive activity provided in your MindEdge eLearning materials and then submitted within Blackboard. Instructor Feedback: This activity uses an integrated rubric in Blackboard. Students can view instructor feedback in the Grade Center. For more information, review these instructions. Cr iti cal El ements Profi c i ent (100%) Ne eds Improvement (75%) Not Evident (0%) Value Int roduc tion: Ove rvi ew Overviews the issue being analyzed and briefly describes main points of argument Overviews the issue being analyzed and briefly describes main points of argument but contains issues regarding accuracy Does not overview issue being analyzed 10 Int roduc tion: The sis Composes a thesis that states the argument that will be supported and proven throughout the essay Composes a thesis but contains issues related to clarity or relevancy Does not compose a thesis 10 Body: Int ent Writes multiple paragraphs that are focused, clearly state their intent, and build the thesis argument Writes multiple paragraphs but writing does not build the thesis argument Does not write multiple paragraphs 10 Body: Body Paragraphs Body paragraphs communicate argument by combining thoughts and ideas with evidence Body paragraphs communicate argument but do not combine thoughts and ideas with evidence Does not communicate argument through body paragraphs 30 Body: Opposing Vi ewpoints Addresses and refutes opposing viewpoints in a way that strengthens the argument Addresses and refutes opposing viewpoints but not in a way that strengthens the argument Does not address or refute opposing viewpoints 10 Reviews claim and summarizes key Reviews claim and summarizes key Does not review claim 10 Conc lusion: Revi ew supporting points of essay supporting points but contains issues regarding alignment to the intent of the thesis Conc lusion: Insights Articulates insights about argument established through your analysis, following argument logically, referring to key points or quotes used to support argument Articulates insights about argument established through your essay, but does not follow argument logically or does not refer to key points or quotes used to support claim Does not articulate insights about argument 10 Ar ti culation of Re spons e Submission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization Submission has major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact readability and articulation of main ideas Submission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of ideas 10 Earned Total 100% At times it can be difficult to know what information from your sources to include in your paper. The PIE method can you make decisions about how to structure your writing to make sure you are providing enough evidence at the appropriate times. The following graphic describes the PIE method of paragraph formatting. (1) This is where readers will have a chance to get an idea of what your essay will be about and what you will prove throughout. Do not give all of your information away here, but give readers a sample of what is to come. Do not forget to review your writing plan to make sure you are hitting all of the points that you planned out, while also stating your argument. (2) (3) The body is your opportunity to describe the support your argument in depth. Make sure your thoughts and evidence are clear and organized in a way that is easy for readers to follow and understand. Think of the conclusion as a review of your argument. Use this section to restate your argument and remind readers of your supporting evidence. Think of this as your last chance to persuade readers to agree with you. (17) Purchase the answer to view it

Evaluate accounting-related legal and ethical business implications. During your weekly meeting, the Director of Accounting has shared with you the topics discussed at a recent

Evaluate accounting-related legal and ethical business implications. During your weekly meeting, the Director of Accounting has shared with you the topics discussed at a recent Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) meeting. Of particular interest was the agenda item about how some companies have gotten in regulatory trouble with the SEC over their revenue and expense recognition practices. While you both are confident that there are no issues relating to this at your company, you both decided that you wanted to learn more about these cases. The Director of Accounting wants you to research two such cases and to present at the next Accounting Department meeting. The director believes that understanding what has happened to other companies in this area of accounting can prevent issues in your company. The Director provides you with the SEC website that they have used in the past to do article searches: You are asked to select two recent SEC actions against companies (not individuals) that relate to revenue and expense recognition and that:

Each below assignments should be in 220-300 words Discussion Assignment 3: Each student will locate and review an article relevant to the topic of the

Each below assignments should be in 220-300 words Discussion Assignment 3: Each student will locate and review an article relevant to the topic of the class. The review is between 400-to-550 words and should summarize the article. include how it applies to our topic, and why you found it interesting. Discussion Assignment 4: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type of testing. When is each type of testing appropriate? Are there situations that preclude the use of a particular type of testing? Homework Assignment: When law enforcement becomes involved, the need may arise to freeze systems as part of the evidence. There is also the likelihood that the incident will become known publicly. Do you think these issues play a significant part in the decision to involve law enforcement? Why or why not? Can you name some situations in which you believe that large organizations have decided not to involve law enforcement? Assignment should follow all APA rules and include a min. of (1) citation/reference.

Question 5: Examine the causes for the breakdown of democracy in 1973, the political, social and economic aspects of the dictatorship (1973-90), and the reasons

Question 5: Examine the causes for the breakdown of democracy in 1973, the political, social and economic aspects of the dictatorship (1973-90), and the reasons for the return to democracy in Chile. Use readings Question 6: What have been the changes and continuities since the return to democracy (1990) in Chile? take into consideration political, judicial, military, economic and social factors. For this question, use information from power points and articles by Patricio Navia, Arturo Valenzuela, Weeks Garretón (1995 and 2000) and Barret. Question 7 Patricio Aylwin claimed that “Chile enjoys a democratic system to the extent possible.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? provide support your argument with facts. In this essay, you will have to analyze the (positive and/or negative) characteristics of the Chilean democracy (from 1990 until the present.) In answering this question, you should read Patricio Navia’s article.

60 60 unread replies. 75 75 replies. Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to

60 60 unread replies. 75 75 replies. Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated. Describe how the components of the Hawthorne study are incorporated in current human resource functions. What was the main idea behind this study? How have you been impacted by the components of this study in your current or past work setting? Respond to at least two of your peers posts.

You are to write 200-300 words in response to the story you have read. Consider the implications of the world that Le Guin invites you

You are to write 200-300 words in response to the story you have read. Consider the implications of the world that Le Guin invites you into; imagine if you yourself lived in Omelas and came of age to learn about the way that the city runs. What would your reaction be? Which side would you find yourself on? Or would you be able to pick sides at all? Try to examine the reasons why someone would choose one side over the other. Write about any emotional reactions you feel while reading; write about any questions you have, or any observations you make about the story as you read along.