Ten years ago, it cost billions of dollars to map a single human genome. Today, it’s about $20,000 and likely to get even cheaper. If the average consumer can afford to have her own genetic map drawn up, what will it mean for medicine and how we approach our health care? n early 2008, Henry Louis Gates Jr. stepped off his flight at LaGuardia Airport and began the process of having an elaborate set of blueprints drawn up: the map of himself, his entire human genome. The Harvard professor of African American studies had at the time just hosted PBS’ successful miniseries, The miniseries, which Gates jokingly calls “Roots in a Test Tube,” traced the genealogical and genetic heritage of prominent figures and celebrities such as Oprah Winfrey, Morgan Freeman, Tina Turner and Chris Rock. Also on Gates’ flight were officials from the Cambridge, Massachusetts-based genetics company Knome, who told Gates they were interested in working with him on other projects involving DNA testing. Already prompted by the mini-series’ fans to do a show about all Americans, Gates told the Knome representatives that this time he wanted to make a PBS series based on testing the full DNA (or “genome”) of some of his guests. Every living thing on Earth is built from instruction manuals—an organism’s genes—found inside its cells. The complete set of instruction manuals is called a genome. For humans, the complete set is 6 billion characters long. We all inherit half of our body’s instruction manual (3 billion characters) from our mother and half from our father. When these strands bond together, the connections create units of information called “base-pairs.” Base-pairs can take on one of four values, signified by the names of the molecules from which they’re made: A, C, G or T. Sequencing a person’s genome means discovering the value of all 3 billion DNA base-pairs—every A, C, G and T—in your body’s instruction manual. It’s the full host of biological blueprints that encodes uniquely who you are. In 2003, only one human genome had been sequenced in the world, and it cost 50 cents per character. Today, just seven years later, the price has dropped to an astonishing 1/300,000 of a dollar per character. Within two to four years, because of rapidly advancing technology and economies of scale, the price is expected to fall by another factor of 10 or more—bringing the total cost of a full genome down to about $2,000. The era of affordable genomes hasn’t yet arrived, but it isn’t far off—and mapping personal genomes at the price point of a laptop computer will change the face of medicine and, in a sense, the world. or his 2009 series Gates traced the genealogical and genetic heritage of guests such as Eva Longoria Parker, Yo-Yo Ma, Meryl Streep, Stephen Colbert, Dr. Mehmet Oz and figure skater Kristi Yamaguchi. And, although Gates wanted to do full genomes of two of his guests, his scientific advisers recommended instead sequencing the genomes of both Gates and his father, 97-year-old Henry Louis Gates Sr. (Scientists hadn’t yet sequenced any African American’s genomes, nor had they sequenced a father-son pair.) In fact, perhaps the most heart-wrenching moment in comes when the program’s genetic experts subtract Gates Sr.’s 3 billion DNA base-pairs from Gates Jr.’s genome. And there, in bold blue and yellow lines, lies the stark genetic outline of the younger Gates’ mother, who died in 1987. “I put my father in this series,” Gates says. “And the big shock is, I got my mother back.” What Gates discovered about his mother was largely symbolic. He, like everyone, carries the blueprint of each of his parents inside his every cell for every moment of his life. However, Gates also learned a boatload of information about his own life and health. A person’s genome carries crucial information about individual weaknesses to disease, susceptibility to various cancers, the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of various drugs and, ominously, some of a person’s more likely ultimate causes of death. In 2000, President Bill Clinton announced that the government had created the first draft of the entire human genome. Ten years later, scientists still haven’t been able to apply the $3 billion Human Genome Project to curing some of our deadly, elusive diseases. In May, genomic researcher J. Craig Venter announced that he and his colleagues had created the first synthetic cell. Using chemicals, they recreated the genetic code of a species of bacterium and then transplanted the manufactured genome into a closely related bacterium. Then the synthetic DNA took over. The genetic counselors Gates hired for told him he carried an innate resistance to certain forms of malaria and that caffeine breaks down quickly in his digestive system. So coffee has less effect on him than it does on most people. “For years I hadn’t drunk [coffee] after noontime, being afraid it’d keep me awake,” he says. But emboldened by his genome results, Gates tried drinking a cup of joe one night before bed. “I went right to sleep,” he says. Other than a variant of sickle cell anemia that makes him more susceptible to a stroke at high altitudes, Gates also learned that no unexpected ticking time bombs awaited him. s to the lack of grave surprises in his DNA, Gates joined a project by his colleague George Church of Harvard Medical School that posts a patient’s entire genome on the Internet (at ) for scientists—and anyone else—to study. The need for publicly accessible genomes to compare and study became evident in An initial analysis of a single character in one of Gates’ genes suggested he also had an exceptionally good ability to digest dairy products. But Gates is lactose intolerant. “I’m the one with the stomach for 59 years,” he said. “I know I can’t drink milk.” It was only on a closer examination of Gates’ genome—enabled by more detailed analysis of his own genes and comparisons to other peoples’ genes—that Knome researchers discovered the source of Gates’ difficulty with dairy products. His particular DNA blueprint, they discovered, also makes it hard for him to process a dairy digestive by-product, called galactose. This is why he can drink plenty of coffee, but not with milk. ne of the first full families—mother, father and children—to sequence their genomes was the West family of Cupertino, California. John West, the father, is a former executive of one of the leading genome sequencing companies in the world—Illumina of San Diego. West, his wife, Judy, and children, Anne and Paul, had blood samples drawn late last year and in January received an iMac that contained all 24 billion A’s, C’s, T’s and G’s which represented the whole West family genome. Although the family is keeping the kids’ genomic results private, 17-year-old Anne has given a public presentation about inheriting a genetic defect from her father that in 2004 resulted in a trip to the emergency room for him. Raced to the hospital with a blood clot in his lung, John West endured a painful and frightening few days staring at his own mortality. But now he and his daughter know the likely cause of his hospitalization. They also know the diet to follow and medications to take to drastically reduce the chances of anything like this happening to either of them in the future. West says his Illumina genome fortunately revealed no bombshells other than the known “misspelling” in a gene of his called “Factor 5.” Such genetic errors, resulting from single-character transcription mistakes soon after a child is conceived in the womb, are sprinkled throughout everyone’s genome. Most DNA mutations are harmless. But just one well-positioned mistake—imagine a car repair manual containing the typo “plug the fuel line” instead of “plumb the fuel line”—can wreak havoc. Many will remember Dolly, a Finn Dorset ewe that in 1996 became the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell. She was cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland and lived there until her death in 2003. Before that, however, a tadpole was the first vertebrate to be cloned, in 1952. Since Dolly’s death, many animals have been cloned, including a camel and a water buffalo. Spitting isn’t au courant at New York Fashion Week, but that’s what notables such as Rupert Murdoch and Ivanka Trump were doing in 2008 at 23 and Me’s genetic testing spit party, hosted by founders Anne Wojcicki (wife of Google co-founder Sergey Brin) and Linda Avey. The driven by National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Dr. Spencer Wells, is “seeking to chart new knowledge about the migratory history of the human species.” If you wish to participate, a $99.95 kit is available to test your DNA and determine your ancestry along your maternal or paternal line. Two shows on television this spring, and featured prominent people who went looking for their lineage. NBC’s used old-fashioned, document-based genealogy, while PBS’ paired genealogy with genetic testing. Talk about one-of-a-kind art. DNA 11 takes a sample of your DNA and reproduces it in color on a canvas you can hang on your wall. You can even mingle your DNA with your spouse’s, for a truly unique anniversary gift. It’s genetics as home décor. After years on the road with Black Sabbath and a 40-year “bender,” how has Ozzy Osbourne survived? That’s what DNA research company Knome is going to try to find out by sequencing the 61-year-old’s entire genetic code. The company is reportedly interested in Osbourne because of his “extreme medical history.” Although genetic testing is still in its infancy, West says there is one way to enjoy access to every genetic test in the world—and every one yet to come. “There are hundreds of genetic tests. And if you were to take every single one of them separately, it’d cost you a fortune and you’d have to pay attention to all these individual pieces,” he says. “The advantage of having your genome sequenced is you’re doing all possible genetic tests all in one shot.” Mike Spear, communications director for Genome Alberta, a genetics funding organization in Calgary, Canada, has had small snippets of his genome tested by genetic-test companies deCODE and 23andMe. He learned, for one, that he’s at high risk for early onset Alzheimer’s disease. And he already knew that longevity runs in his family—a grandmother lived to be 101 and his father is still in the work-force at age 85. “So I’m going to live long, but the last 30 years will be in a corner,” he says. He also says, though, that most genetic test results just weigh the dice a little, so it’s important not to get too carried away. Spear learned, for instance, that he has twice the risk of baldness compared to the average man. “Your genome is what you are, but there are so many factors involved,” he says. “So I’m at higher risk for baldness, but … I have a full head of hair, and I’m 56. I’m at very low ‘risk’ for asthma, but I have always been an asthmatic.” Spear says anyone who already tends toward hypochondria or excessive worrying might want to think twice about personal genome sequencing or genetic testing—especially since the marketplace is still so new and people are still only beginning to learn how to interpret the results. “When you get these tests done, you sign a lot of pieces of paper that say you know what you’re walking into,” he says. “They even at one point in your waivers say, in caps, ‘You may find out things you don’t want to know.’” Knome founder George Church of Harvard Medical School says the U.S. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 prevents insurance companies from upping their premiums or dropping consumers who discover bad things from genetic testing. However, he adds, the act “doesn’t stop consumers from gaming the system.” If a patient finds out her genome gives her a clean bill of health, she might cut back on insurance coverage—reducing the pool of money insurance companies use to pay for expensive care for sick subscribers. Or if a patient learns he’s at a high risk for something such as Lou Gehrig’s disease, he may preemptively sign up for all the medical coverage money can buy. Such scenarios ultimately aren’t fair to insurance companies, Church says. He suggests that the insurance industry now needs to team up with geneticists to brainstorm ways to work within GINA while still discouraging abuses of the system. While it’s common practice now, DNA evidence wasn’t used to convict or exonerate criminal suspects until 1986, when Richard Buckland was exonerated despite having confessed to rape and murder near Leicestershire, England. A year later, the first person was convicted in America on the basis of DNA evidence. According to the Innocence Project, more than 250 people in the U.S. have been exonerated through postconviction DNA testing since 1989. ictor McElheny, author of the new book (Basic Books), says some cancer patients today are already having parts of their genome—and sometimes a tumor’s genome—sequenced. “When you do cancer chemotherapy, you’re operating pretty much by guess and by God,” he says. “An awful lot of cancer drugs only maybe one-third of the people who get them. … You’d like to know what the person’s own genetic predispositions are, so you can start picking the right drug the first time.” Cancer treatments are the first in a line of predicted “personalized medicine” breakthroughs, in which a person’s genetic information s doctors tailor the treatment to the patient’s specific body chemistry. One big problem, however, is that well-trained doctors in genetics are still a rare breed today. And patients, more and more, will need good genetic advice. Matthew Bower, a genetic counselor at the University of Minnesota Medical Center in Minneapolis, says his field is entering an age of data overload. A’s, C’s, G’s and T’s can crowd out useful medical knowledge and counseling as much as it can bring it on. “There are not enough genetics professionals to be managing everyone’s genome out there,” he says. And without good counseling, he says, people can still make bad decisions. For instance, Bower says he recently spoke to two journalists who had small parts of their genome sequenced and learned that they didn’t have one particular gene mutation that increases the risk of breast cancer. “They said, At least I don’t have to worry about breast cancer,’” Bower recalls. But breast cancer is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. And its genetic causes alone, he says, could come from dozens or hundreds of possible mutations in a person’s genome. “People tend to perceive genetic information as black-and-white, all-or-nothing,” he says. “So if they don’t have the Parkinson’s marker, then they’re not going to get Parkinson’s. That’s false. Or if they have the Parkinson’s marker, then they’re going to get Parkinson’s. That’s also false.” he likelihood for confusion as the personal genome marketplace heats up has recently inspired the federal government to act. In June, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration informed the top consumer genetic-sequencing companies in the country—such as Knome and Illumina—that the agency could soon be regulating the personal genome and consumer genetics marketplace. Regulation, says Church, could entwine companies in red tape and slow the market down. On the other hand, he adds, it may not hurt much. The FDA’s intervention could actually the fledgling genome industry: “Reading about this in the news and seeing the FDA seal of approval,” he says, might also lead consumers to want to try out consumer genetic testing. Grant Campany, senior director of the Archon X-Prize for Genomics, says the FDA’s move itself constitutes a kind of endorsement. “The industry is going through a natural state of evolution,” he says. “It’s in everybody’s best interest that there’s a certain standard or benchmark—what quality really means.” FDA regulation of the marketplace also means that the June 2010 price tag for complete genome sequencing from the top two companies—Knome ($39,500, which includes genetic counseling) and Illumina ($19,500)—may soon be subject to change. Campany particularly has his eyes on the future of the marketplace, as he’s supervising the privately funded $10 million “X-Prize,” which will be awarded to the first company that can sequence 100 genomes in 10 days or less at no more than $10,000 per genome. Biotech journalist David Ewing Duncan says it’s still early, but at least a subset of the world is fascinated at the prospect of being the first generation in human history to read their own blueprint. In 2009, he published a book that traces his sometimes enlightening, sometimes-confounding experiences subjecting himself to genetic tests from companies such as 23andMe and deCODE. (Duncan hasn’t yet had his whole genome sequenced, however.) His conclusion, in short, is that a lot of genetic and genomic tests are scattershot: A little bit of information here, a little bit there and a lot of confusion elsewhere. Yet the field is progressing at great speed, too. It’s not just looking at individual DNA base-pairs, but also making sense of larger patterns within the genome—discovering, for instance, that one DNA base-pair may suggest that a person is good at digesting milk, but a larger grouping suggests he’s actually, on balance, lactose intolerant. “We’re a lot closer than I’d have thought. But it’s like a thousand points of light that need to be connected,” he says. “We took apart the human body. Now we have to put it back together.”
Write a five to six (5-6) page paper in which you: 1. Discuss how administrative agencies like the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) or the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) take action in order to be effective in preventing high-risk gambles in securities / banking, a foundation of the economy. 2. Determine the elements of a valid contract, and discuss how consumers and banks each have a duty of good faith and fair dealing in the banking relationship. 3. Compare and contrast the differences between intentional and negligent tort actions 4. Discuss the tort action of “Interference with Contractual Relations and Participating in a Breach of Fiduciary duty” and, if the bank you’ve chosen were to behave as JP Morgan did, would you be able to prevail in such a tort action. 5. With the advent of mobile banking, discuss how banks have protected the software that allows for online transaction to occur through automation. 6. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. Purchase the answer to view it
Due Week 6 and worth 200 points Assume that you are a Quality Officer who is responsible for one of the state’s largest healthcare organizations. You have been told that the quality of patient care has decreased, and you have been assigned a project that is geared toward increasing quality of care for the patients. Your Chief Executive Officer has requested a six to eight-page summary of your recommended initiatives. : You may create and /or make all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment. Write a 6-8 page paper in which you: Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
*********LOCAL ARTIST ASSIGNMENT*************** research and post information on one local (Pacific Northwest-based) hip hop artist, providing their background information, current projects and links to upcoming shows. In order to receive full points for this assignment, you will need to do more than just look at their website. You should conduct local newspaper searches (Seattle Weekly, Stranger, etc) and find out as much information as possible. Your post should be a collection of synthesized, paraphrased information (do not simply cut and paste). I’d like to get your sense of the artist and their music, meaning you will need to find and listen to some of their music, watch their music videos, etc. You would do well to get started early on this assignment, as I will only accept one entry per artist. This means if someone posts about an artist before you do, you need to find another artist. For this reason, you will be able to see other people’s posts before you post this week. monitor the board before you post. The only way to ensure that you are writing about a particular artist is to post your entire and complete entry about that artist (you may not “call” it). cite all sources and let me know if you have questions. In a separate post from your artist bio, generate your own discussion topics from the Watkins reading and the documentary: The Otherside
In this module, you learned about the medical education system and requirements of licensing. As you can imagine, the competency of medical professionals is very important. Issues can arise when medical personnel do not meet the minimum requirements for a position. An awareness of the competency dilemmas that can occur in a professional career can limit the damage that can arise from them. Increasing public demand for protection, coupled with the growth in the number and sophistication of fraudulent practitioners over the past 2 decades, has resulted in stronger and more complex licensing boards and licensing statutes throughout the country. Examples of medical misconduct include, but are not limited to: Read the case scenarios below and in a 1-2 page paper, written in APA format, address the items below for each scenario: I have attached the Case Scenarios below.
his assignment will be submitted to Turnitin®. Reflecting on the concepts in the course, select and research one (1) of the company situations listed below and prepare a PowerPoint presentation of the legal and ethical issues surrounding it. At least one source citation for each company is provided to get you started and you may use this citation as one of your required sources. It is expected you will use the course Lessons and required readings plus your own independent research of credible sources in support of this presentation. At least two sources should be peer-reviewed articles or scholarly texts from the library. Your presentation should include the following, organized in professionally designed slides with accompanying Speaker’s Notes or Audio and/or video narrative. Further instructions for the PPT are also below: 1. Introduce the company (e.g. name, type of business, its corporate structure); 2. Define and explain the core ethical dilemma confronting the company, with pertinent facts; this includes why it is an issue; clearly define the and what area of law is involved (e.g. contract, torts, etc.); clear as to the company’s situation and its ethical choices – the action the company chose to do and at least one other, different, choice; 3. Identify, define and explain an that supports, or is illustrated in, the choice/action the company made. 4. Identify, define and explain that the company leadership could have utilized in this situation explain how utilization of this alternate ethical framework would have led to a different result in deciding the ethical dilemma. Explain specifically how the company effectively could have employed this framework. 5. Recommend: Lessons learned. What lessons can business management leaders learn from this case study for management of business operations? . In determining and designing your recommendation consider the concepts in areas of law we have studied this term, e.g. contracts, tort liability, corporate structure and policy, corporate social responsibility, Sarbanes-Oxley, employment laws, litigation, etc. A good business practice recommendation can relate to any one or combination of these elements of the legal business environment. The company you have studied for this Assignment engaged in practices on an ethical basis that ultimately touched or affected all aspects of its management. Your recommendation should be a take-away pertinent for any business to apply in practice. It is not sufficient to just say something like “do it differently,” or “be ethical.” In addition to the above, for this Assignment and the Instructions for PPT. Submit this essay as a Microsoft PPT document attachment no later than 11:59 pm ET Sunday of week seven.
What did you learn about this week that grabbed your attention or caused you to think more deeply about it? You may not have thought about using the library as a set of skills, but those skills can save you time and mental energy as you progress through your program and in your career. Now that you have chosen your research question and begun searching the library databases for next week’s assignment, create a post using a minimum of 50 words and discuss your research question. Your goal is to enthusiastically share something you’ve learned with your peers, apply it to real life, and make your pin informative, concise, and engaging to your readers. Be creative! RESEARCH TOPIC MUST BE APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANAYLSIS RELATED TO AUTIM SPECTRUM RELATED BECAUSE WE HAVE TO PICH SOMTHING THAT IS RELATED WHAT WE ARE GOING TO SCHOOL FOR.
In this assignment, begin by taking a retrospective look at your life history, to discuss which aspects of your personality have remained consistent and which aspects of your personality have changed over time. Then, analyze the roles of nature and nurture in shaping your personality. Subsequently, discuss possible sources of inaccuracy and bias in any retrospective analysis. Finally, discuss the reasons why systematic scientific studies are considered more valuable than individual accounts. Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you: Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: Purchase the answer to view it Purchase the answer to view it Purchase the answer to view it
You’ll create both pseudocode and a flowchart to design a mobile app. The app will write the device’s latitude and longitude to a file each time the device’s location changes. Use the techniques discussed in Section 3.3 and Chapter 10 of your textbook to write the latitude and longitude to the file as a record.Write your pseudocode in a plain-text editor such as Notepad or TextEdit, and save as a text file (*.txt). Also, save a screenshot of your flowchart as a JPEG file (*.jpg). In addition to creating pseudocode and a flowchart for your app, you’ll also create a basic GUI design for your app. You can use or to lay out your GUI and indicate components such as buttons, text boxes, sliders, and others. Be sure to label your GUI design with component names and indicate their properties. When you’re finished, save your GUI design as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file (
NEEDS CITATION WITH APA SCHOOL REFERENES ABOVE 2013. There is probably no greater responsibility that the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner assumes than the responsibility of prescribing medications. While someone can be harmed by psychotherapy, the level and intensity of the harm generally does not come to the same level of harm that can occur from improper prescribing. The PMHNP must understand his/her responsibility both at a state and federal level when it comes to prescribing medications. In this Practicum Journal Assignment, you will explore the legalities associated with prescribing controlled substances, as well as what a DEA number is, how to obtain one, and, most importantly, how to prescribe controlled substances in your state. To prepare for this Practicum Journal: In 2-3 pages: